Introduction ::TajikistanBackground:The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan endured several domestic security incidents in 2010-12, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002, and became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013.Geography ::TajikistanLocation:Central Asia, west of China, south of KyrgyzstanGeographic coordinates:39 00 N, 71 00 EArea:total: 143,100 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 96land: 141,510 sq kmwater: 2,590 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than WisconsinLand boundaries:total: 3,651 kmborder countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 kmCoastline:0 km (landlocked)Maritime claims:none (landlocked)Climate:midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir MountainsTerrain:Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwestElevation extremes:lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 mhighest point: Qullai Somoniyon 7,495 mNatural resources:hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, goldLand use:arable land: 5.96%permanent crops: 0.91%other: 93.13% (2011)Irrigated land:7,421 sq km (2009)Total renewable water resources:21.91 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 11.49 cu km/yr (6%/4%/91%)per capita: 1,740 cu m/yr (2006)Natural hazards:earthquakes; floodsEnvironment - current issues:inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticidesEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSRPeople and Society ::TajikistanNationality:noun: Tajikistani(s)adjective: TajikistaniEthnic groups:Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)Languages:Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and businessReligions:Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)Population:7,910,041 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 96Age structure:0-14 years: 33.4% (male 1,343,251/female 1,296,192)15-24 years: 20.4% (male 818,089/female 795,303)25-54 years: 38.5% (male 1,501,713/female 1,541,413)55-64 years: 4.6% (male 165,220/female 195,363)65 years and over: 3.2% (male 106,605/female 146,892) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 64.1 %youth dependency ratio: 58.9 %elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %potential support ratio: 19.1 (2013)Median age:total: 23.2 yearsmale: 22.7 yearsfemale: 23.7 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.79% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 68Birth rate:25.49 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 56Death rate:6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 154Net migration rate:-1.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Urbanization:urban population: 26.5% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:DUSHANBE (capital) 704,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:22.3 (2001 est.)Maternal mortality rate:65 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 94Infant mortality rate:total: 36.16 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 64male: 40.65 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 31.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 66.72 yearscountry comparison to the world: 166male: 63.63 yearsfemale: 69.97 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:2.8 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 70Contraceptive prevalence rate:27.9% (2012)Health expenditures:6% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 109Physicians density:2.01 physicians/1,000 population (2006)Hospital bed density:5.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 92% of populationrural: 54% of populationtotal: 64% of populationunimproved:urban: 8% of populationrural: 46% of populationtotal: 36% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 95% of populationrural: 94% of populationtotal: 94% of populationunimproved:urban: 5% of populationrural: 6% of populationtotal: 6% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 105HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:9,100 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 101HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 500 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 81Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fevervectorborne disease: malaria (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:8.6% (2008)country comparison to the world: 136Children under the age of 5 years underweight:15% (2005)country comparison to the world: 51Education expenditures:3.9% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 115Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 99.7%male: 99.8%female: 99.6% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 12 yearsmale: 12 yearsfemale: 11 years (2011)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 164,432percentage: 10 % (2005 est.)Government ::TajikistanCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistanconventional short form: Tajikistanlocal long form: Jumhurii Tojikistonlocal short form: Tojikistonformer: Tajik Soviet Socialist RepublicGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Dushanbegeographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 Etime difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)note: the administrative center name follows in parenthesesIndependence:9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)National holiday:Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)Constitution:6 November 1994Legal system:civil law systemInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 December 1999); First Deputy Prime Minister Matlubkhon DAVLATOV (since 5 January 2012)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (technically eligible for two terms); election last held on 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the presidentelection results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%Legislative branch:bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; members serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members elected through constituencies, 22 members elected through party selection; members serve five-year terms)elections: National Assembly - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015)election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 71%, IRPT 8.2%, CPT 7%, APT 5.1%, PER 5.1%, other 3.6%; seats by party - PDPT 55, IRPT 2, CPT 2, APT 2, PER 2Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all three courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous RegionPolitical parties and leaders:Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI]Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]Political pressure groups and leaders:influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODAunregistered Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON]unregistered opposition group Guruhi-24 (Group-24) [Umarali QUVVATOV]Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]International organization participation:ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Nuriddin SHAMSOVchancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037telephone:  (202) 223-6090FAX:  (202) 223-6091Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Susan M. ELLIOTTembassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189telephone:  (37) 229-20-00FAX:  (37) 229-20-50Flag description:three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number ""seven"" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happinessNational symbol(s):crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed starsNational anthem:name: ""Surudi milli"" (National Anthem)lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Suleiman YUDAKOVnote: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyricsEconomy ::TajikistanEconomy - overview:Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad, almost all of them in Russia, supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, and its production is closely monitored, and in many cases controlled, by the government. In the wake of the National Bank of Tajikistan's admission in December 2007 that it had improperly lent money to investors in the cotton sector, the IMF canceled its program in Tajikistan. A reform agenda is underway, according to which over half a billion dollars in farmer debt has been forgiven, and IMF assistance has been reinstated. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. Electricity output expanded with the completion of the Sangtuda-1 hydropower dam - finished in 2009 with Russian investment. The smaller Sangtuda-2, built with Iranian investment, began operating in 2012. The government of Tajikistan is pinning major hopes on the massive Roghun dam which, if finished according to Tajik plans, will be the tallest dam in the world and significantly expand electricity output. The World Bank is funding two feasibility studies for the dam (technical-economic, and social-environmental), scheduled to be completed in mid-2013. In January 2010, the government began selling shares in the Roghun enterprise to its population, ultimately raising over $180 million but Tajikistan will still need significant investment to complete the dam. According to numerous reports, many Tajik individuals and businesses were forced to buy shares. The coerced share sales finally ended in mid-2010 under intense criticism from donors, particularly the IMF. Food and fuel prices in 2011 increased to the highest levels seen since 2002 due in part to an increase in rail transport tariffs through Uzbekistan. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food and 90% of that comes by rail. Uzbekistan closed one of the rail lines into Tajikistan in late 2011, hampering the transit of goods to and from the southern part of the country.GDP (purchasing power parity):$18.04 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 137$16.78 billion (2011 est.)$15.63 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$7.592 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:7.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 227.4% (2011 est.)6.5% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$2,300 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 189$2,200 (2011 est.)$2,100 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:13.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 11017.4% of GDP (2011 est.)16% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 81.5%government consumption: 26.2%investment in fixed capital: 16.6%investment in inventories: 14.2%exports of goods and services: 10.6%imports of goods and services: -49.1%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 20%industry: 20.2%services: 59.8% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goatsIndustries:aluminum, cement, vegetable oilIndustrial production growth rate:8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 22Labor force:2.1 million (2012)country comparison to the world: 121Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 47.9%industry: 10.9%services: 41.2% (2012 est.)Unemployment rate:2.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 192.2% (2009 est.)note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higherPopulation below poverty line:39.6% (December 2012 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.5%highest 10%: 24.3% (2009 est.)Distribution of family income - Gini index:32.6 (2006)country comparison to the world: 10234.7 (1998)Budget:revenues: $2.153 billionexpenditures: $2.026 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:28.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 102Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):1.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 28Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):5.8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 16012.4% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:6.5% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 735% (31 December 2010 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:17.1% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1026.34% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$1.27 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 143$989.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 149$1.979 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$1.28 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 151$1.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$401 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 90-$303.9 million (2011 est.)Exports:$1.803 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 144$1.739 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textilesExports - partners:Turkey 30.5%, China 9.6%, Iran 7.7%, Afghanistan 6.5%, Kazakhstan 4.9%, Russia 4.3% (2012)Imports:$4.029 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 138$3.54 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffsImports - partners:China 42.3%, Russia 16.2%, Kazakhstan 10.1%, Turkey 5.7%, Iran 4.2% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$628.5 million (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 146$532.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$3.418 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 132$3.323 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$1.8 billion (February 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$18.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 47$16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)Exchange rates:Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -4.738 (2012 est.)4.6102 (2011 est.)4.379 (2010 est.)4.1428 (2009)3.4563 (2008)Energy ::TajikistanElectricity - production:16.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 77Electricity - consumption:15.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Electricity - exports:1 billion kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 54Electricity - imports:300.5 million kWh (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 81Electricity - installed generating capacity:4.5 million kW (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Electricity - from fossil fuels:9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 195Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 183Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:91% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 189Crude oil - production:215 bbl/day (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 99Crude oil - exports:80 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 70Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Crude oil - proved reserves:12 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 89Refined petroleum products - production:NA bbl/dayRefined petroleum products - consumption:45,810 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 102Refined petroleum products - exports:225.2 bbl/day (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 118Refined petroleum products - imports:7,758 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Natural gas - production:40 million cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 84Natural gas - consumption:172 million cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 187Natural gas - imports:132.4 million cu m (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 71Natural gas - proved reserves:5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 90Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:6.678 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 114Communications ::TajikistanTelephones - main lines in use:380,000 (2011)country comparison to the world: 106Telephones - mobile cellular:6.324 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 97Telephone system:general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998 while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and townsinternational: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2011)Broadcast media:state-run TV broadcaster transmits nationally on 4 stations and regionally on 4 stations; 11 independent TV stations broadcast locally and regionally; some households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite; state-run radio broadcaster operates Radio Tajikistan, Voice of Dushanbe, and several regional stations; a small number of independent radio stations (2010)Internet country code:.tjInternet hosts:6,258 (2012)country comparison to the world: 142Internet users:700,000 (2009)country comparison to the world: 110Transportation ::TajikistanAirports:24 (2013)country comparison to the world: 131Airports - with paved runways:total: 17over 3,047 m: 22,438 to 3,047 m: 41,524 to 2,437 m: 5914 to 1,523 m: 3under 914 m: 3 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 71,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 1under 914 m:5 (2013)Pipelines:gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)Railways:total: 680 kmcountry comparison to the world: 103broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 27,767 km (2000)country comparison to the world: 99Waterways:200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)country comparison to the world: 99Military ::TajikistanMilitary branches:Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)Military service age and obligation:18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 2,012,790females age 16-49: 2,020,618 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,490,267females age 16-49: 1,675,083 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 76,430female: 74,038 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:1.5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 101Transnational Issues ::TajikistanDisputes - international:in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with KyrgyzstanRefugees and internally displaced persons:stateless persons: 2,300 (2012)Illicit drugs:major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Tajikistan — [tä jik΄i stan′, tä jik΄istän′] country in WC Asia: became independent upon the breakup of the U.S.S.R. (1991): 55,240 sq mi (143,071 sq km); pop. 5,093,000; cap. Dushanbe: formerly, Tadzhik Soviet Socialist Republic … English World dictionary
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Tajikistan — /teuh jik euh stan , stahn , jee keuh /, n. Tadzhikistan. * * * Tajikistan Introduction Tajikistan Background: Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five year civil war since it gained independence in 1991 from the USSR. A… … Universalium
Tajikistan — noun a landlocked mountainous republic in southeast central Asia to the north of Afghanistan; formerly an Asian soviet • Syn: ↑Republic of Tajikistan, ↑Tadzhikistan, ↑Tadzhik, ↑Tadjik, ↑Tajik • Instance Hypernyms: ↑Asian country, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Tajikistan — Tadjikistan Ҷумҳурии То … Wikipédia en Français
Tajikistan — noun Country in Central Asia. Official name: Republic of Tajikistan. See Also: Tajik, Tajiki, Tajik SSR … Wiktionary
Tajikistan — tajik, Tajikistan → Tayikistán … Diccionario panhispánico de dudas
Tajikistan — geographical name country W central Asia bordering on China & Afghanistan; a constituent republic ( Tadzhik Republic (or Tadzhikistan) ) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1929 91 capital Dushanbe area 55,251 square miles (143,100 square… … New Collegiate Dictionary
Tajikistán — Véase Tayikistán … Diccionario español de neologismos
Tajikistan — Ta|ji|ki|stan a country in central Asia, between Uzbekistan and China, formerly part of the Soviet Union. Population: 6,579,000 (2001). Capital: Dushanbe. >TajikTajikistani n adj … Dictionary of contemporary English